PBR,SINA,VALE?P=PBR,SINA,VALE : Summary for Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.- Petro - Yahoo Finance
3 Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo-ECOPETROL, Piedecuesta, Colombia. Este magmatismo de arco del Jurásico medio es parte de la provincia de arco . Plagioclase is the most abundant mineral and range from 40 – 50%. . U-Pb dating of zircon by LA-ICP-MS, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 7(5): 1- Petróleos Mexicanos, which translates to Mexican Petroleum, but is trademarked and better the Mexican government who then claimed all mineral rights for the state as part . Up to date, and in spite of pressure by the Mexican Congress, the . a México por acusaciones contra el exdirector de la petrolera estatal" – via. Nick devils drank a dishonor cum customizing the tugboat cum iowan dating. petroleo es un mineral yahoo dating el petroleo es un mineral yahoo dating jogar .
There was no restriction for animal species, sample size, dose and period of administration of glycerol. Additionally, there was no restriction on date or language for the selected articles.
In case of any discrepancy between the documents, all criteria were reviewed and discussed. Table 1 shows the data related to the experimental design of the retrieved articles. Summary of the selected studies. Resumen de los estudios seleccionados.
Dry Matter Intake; CP: Neutral Detergent Fiber; NE: The parameters used were: Additional variables such as species, breed, experimental period, collected material, among others, were used for descriptive purposes only, without punctuation, in order to contribute to the discussion table 1.
Annual Report* of IGCP Project No. Y | Stella Moreiras - tutelasalute.info
RESULTS The search using ISI Web of Science database resulted in articles, 38 were excluded for dealing with glycerol production, three were excluded because used in vitro essays, nine for not using glycerol in the diet experiments with other products40 articles were literature reviews and 27 did not fit in the selection criteria book chapter, book index, summary of congress, etc. Thus, 15 out of articles were selected for this study. The search in PubMed database resulted in two additional articles.
Therefore, we selected 17 articles for this review table 2.
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Scores for evaluation criteria of articles selected. Retrieved studies had been carried out on pigs, cows, bulls, sheep, laying hens and broilers. Sample sizes varied widely among articles, a fact that may have occurred due to the variety of species and different statistical designs used. Seventy percent of the studies conducted randomized trials.
All articles included a control group, but none of them have declared blind evaluations. There was a large variation in the level of glycerol supplied, without a pattern even within the same species. The time of administration of glycerol also varied greatly ten days to 25 weeks.Reservas Probadas Probables y Posibles
In experiments performed with bovines, the most frequently collected materials for laboratory analysis were: In pigs, the collection of faeces was the most commonly assessed parameter due to digestibility analyses. Excreta were also collected in three experiments with birds in order to evaluate the nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus content, food intake and digestibility.
In one experiment conducted with lambs, ruminal mucosa, blood and carcass were collected. Products with lower purity, as in the case of crude glycerol, may present contaminants originating from the extraction process, such as methanol, a toxic substance which is considered unsafe at levels above ppm Dasari However, pigs fed diets containing glycerol and 2, ppm Hansen et al and 3, ppm Lammers et al of methanol showed no signs of intoxication.
Regarding the levels of methanol, only three studies reported specific amounts of this substance - 1. Some other studies reported non-significant levels of methanol. Similar results were observed in lambs after about four weeks Terre et al In pigs, the addition of glycerol in the diet did not affect the average daily consumption, average daily weight gain or feed efficiency, in a period of days, initiated seven days after weaning Seneviratne et al The performance of dairy cows was variable, particularly in relation to food intake.
Some authors have reported that the use of glycerol reduced the dry matter intake. Defrain et alevaluating animals in the pre-birth, found that levels of glycerol from approximately 2. On the other hand, diets with Still, there was a tendency to increase milk production in cows supplemented with glycerol during the sixth week of lactation, probably due to changes in metabolism DeFrain et al There was only a subtle reduction in the levels of milk fat and protein within 63 days of early lactation, even when using 1.
The egg quality parameters were not changed Swiatkiewicz and KoreleskiYalcin et al The total monounsaturated fatty acids of egg yolk were lower only in animals fed with the diet containing 7.
The addition of glycerin in the diet caused no significant effect when evaluating parameters such as carcass yield Della Casa et alTerre et allean content and weight and lean cuts Della Casa et al.
Additionally, no effect on fatty acid composition Terre et al and intramuscular fatty acids Della Casa et al were found.
Higher doses of glycerol resulted in higher octadecenoic acid content and a trend towards lower levels of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids Della Casa et al Glycerol has also influenced the pattern of rumen fermentation.
Its use in about 3. These changes in fermentation profile were also found in lactating cows, while increasing proportions of propionate and butyrate DeFrain et alAbo El-Nor et alvalerate Abo El-Nor et al and isovalerate with reduction in the proportion of acetate DeFrain et alAbo El-Nor et al Studies also reported the effects of glycerol in the digestion process.
Operating procedures and parameters are described in Valencia et al. Zircon crystals were analyzed in polished epoxy grain mounts with a Micromass Isoprobe multicollector ICP-MS equipped with nine Faraday collectors, an axial Daly collector, and four ion-counting channels.
U-Pb zircon crystallization ages were estimated and plot using Isoplot 3. Two uncertainties are reported on these plots. The larger uncertainty labeled agewhich is the reported uncertainty of the age, is determined as the quadratic sum of the weighted mean error plus the total systematic error for the set of analyses. The main differences identified rely on the ferromagnesian minerals contents. The sample from the Altamira Monzogranite was extremely weathered and was not possible to review.
Mineral abbreviations were taken from Kretz and Spear Crystals are commonly zoned and presents undulatory extinction and deformation twins.
This mineral is often replaced by epidote, very fine muscovite and calcite. Accessory minerals include zircon and opaque with limited contents of titanite. These ages ranges from ca. All these ages are related to the zircon forming event which is a major record of the magmatic crystallization of the plutonic rocks.
Analytical procedures and results are presented in the Appendix and in Table 2. Samples have SiO2 values between MgO values are between 1. In contrast sample CB from the Altamira Monzogranite has a more acid trend and is classified as granodiorite Figure 5a. Within the alkaline series diagram after Peccerillo and Taylor the analyzed rocks have a west to east trend of K2O enrichment. Multielements patterns normalized against primitive mantle according with Sun and McDonoughshow enrichment in K, Rb and Sr, and a well defined Nb, P and Ti negative anomaly Figure 5f.
Within tectonic discrimination diagram after Pearce et al. Reconnaissance geochemistry has also shown that the four granitic bodies of southern Colombia share a similar tectonic setting. The ubiquitous presence of hornblende and biotite in these granitoids is characteristic of wet melting within subduction related setting Ernst, Both trace element patterns which well defined Nb and Ti anomalies and enrichment in large ion lithopile elements such as K, Rb, Ba, Th and C, together with tectonic discrimination diagrams show characteristic of a continental volcanic arc tectonic setting Pearce et al.
The west to east variations seen in the alkaline series diagram Peccerilo and Taylor, is also a major characteristic of continental arcs, where the more inboard magmatic focus will record a higher alkalinity due either to more extensive crustal assimilation or lesser proportions of melting Tatsumi and Eggins, Two different tectonic models have been proposed for the Early to Middle Mesozoic tectonics of Northwestern South America including Colombia: Whereas the former model have arise from considerations derived from a basin perspective reviews Cediel et al.
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A more conciliated tectonic model have also suggested that a subduction related tectonic margin may applied from the displaced Jurassic terranes that were formed farther south, a rift related environment is probably characteristic of the authoctonous elements of the margin which are located to the east Bayona et al.
The reconnaissance geochemical and geochronological results presented here suggest that the Jurassic domains in southern Colombia are related with a Jurassic active continental margin and the built of a continental arc. Therefore within this framework the data presented here suggest that southern Colombian margin was part of a Middle Jurassic active continental margin.
Although paleomagnetic data from the upper Magdalena Valley have suggested that the crustal domain were the western granitoids are emplaced, was formed farther south Bayona, et al. When these domains are placed within tectonic models for the northern Andes, a picture of an active continental margin is envisioned at least for southern Colombia and for the westernmost Jurassic domains in the Central Cordillera.
Within this margin several domains were translated to the north during the Cretaceous, probably as a consequence of the oblique configuration of the margin Bayona et al. More paleomagnetic data and additional geochronological and geochemical constrains from the Jurassic magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the main Andes and the adjacent cratonic region will allow to further understand the tectonic and evolving paleogeography of the Jurassic in the northern Andes and the probable north to south variation of tectonic styles in the margin.
C was partially supported by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. The authors acknowledge the important comments from the two anonymous reviewers of this paper. Geometrical control of subduction-related magmatism: Journal of the Geological Society, London, A preliminary interpretation for block rotation and translations.
Journal of South American Earth Sciences. Paleomagnetism in Mesozoic rocks of the northern Andes and its implications in Mesozoic tectonics of northwestern South America. New radiometric age data from SW Colombia.
Tectonic setting and implications within Pangea paleogeography. Tectonic assembly of the Northern Andean Block.
AAPG memoir 79, pp. Geochronology of Proterozoic basement inliers from the Colombian Andes: Geological Society of London, Special Publicationpp. The Interpretation of Igneous Rocks. Hornblende, the continent maker; evolution of H2O during circum-Pacific subduction versus continental collision. Enhanced precision, accuracy, efficiency, and spatial resolution of U-Pb ages by laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Geosystems, 9, pp.
Geochemical characteristics of collision-zone magmatism. The South Patagonian batholith: A, Tectonic evolution of South America.
Rio de Janeiro 31st International Geological Congress. Geodynamic evolution of the northern and central Andes during early to middle Mesozoic times: Journal of the Geological Society 6: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 21 4: Dextral shear, terrane accretion and basin formation in the Northern Andes: The Origin and Evolution of the Caribbean Plate: Geological Society of London Special Publication Cretaceous basaltic terranes in Western Colombia: Journal of Petrology, v.
Tectonic evolution of the Caribbean and northwestern South America: The case for accretion of two Late Cretaceous oceanic plateaus. Chemie der Erde Symbols for rock-forming minerals. Geologie en Mijnbouw, 61, Formation of magmatic crust at the Andean continental margin during early Mesozoic: Berkeley Geochronology Center, Special Publication 4: New geological and geochronological data from the Colombian Andes: Cenozoic contractional reactivation of Mesozoic extensional structures in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia.