Dating dinosaur fossils | Presidio Doors - Custom Iron Doors - Austin, Texas
What they called radiometric dating of animals. Creationists bring up carbon dating fossils are several different methods, a comprehensive index to date. So do they actually use the carbon dating method on dinosaur bones? dating of multiple samples of bone from 8 dinosaurs found in texas, alaska, colorado, Scientists determine the age of dinosaur bones by dating the fossils and the. Radiocarbon dating is well established as the go-to method for determining the age of organic materials, however this method only yields.
If the accepted ages of millions of years for dinosaurs were to be found to be in error, this would be a problem to evolution. The dinosaur dates reported below and discussed in the AOGS paper discussed throughout this article, included triceratops, hadrosaur, allosaurus, and acrocanthasaurs.
Below is a list of some dinosaur fossils and their dated ages from the Miller paper. An apatosaurus was found in late Jurassic strata of the Morrison formation, and excavation was done in and In a triceratops horn was found.
A femur bone from a hardosaur in was found in the Hell Creek formation. An acrocanthosaurus carnivorous dinosaur specimen was excavated in near Glen Rose, Texas and was tested in by the University of Georgia. Are the dates beyond the range of testing technology?
No, the University of Georgia had extended the maximum limit up over 50, years, and the ages were all well below this. Are the ages still too old? After all, even though these ages are much younger than conventional ages, many creationists believe life on earth to be much younger than even the reported carbon ages of these dinosaur fossils.
This question will be dealt with in a later section of this article. Another question that might come up with respect to these studies is the issue of contamination. If young organic material became mixed with the dinosaur material that was carbon dated, then the younger material would skew the result to a younger age. Special care was taken to prevent this kind of contamination. Bones were cleaned by ultrasonics. Then the bone was crushed and acetic acid was applied to remove any possible external contamination carbonates.
Hydrochloric acid was added to dissolve the bone and release carbon dioxide, which was then chemically treated to produce graphite.
Showing Their Age
This graphite was then tested for carbon After death, the animal no longer takes in any carbon nor any other kind of carbon. The carbon decays at a known rate, but since it is being replenished while the animal is alive, only after the animal dies is no carbon added.
Given the initial amount of carbon, the decay rate, and the remaining amount of carbon in a fossil, the length of time it would take for the initial amount of carbon to decay to the amount measured as remaining in the fossil may be calculated. Carbon decays with a half-life of about 5, years. So if an object contained 1, carbon atoms, after 5, years it should contain approximately half that many, or carbon atoms. There is one other pertinent point to be made about carbon dating, however.
In fact, if the entire earth were solid carbon, in a million years so much would have decayed that there would not be even a single atom of carbon left. Scientists have done studies which suggest that dinosaurs lived millions of years ago, but those dates were not arrived at by use of carbon dating methods. So, you might ask, why is this article about carbon dating of dinosaurs? These standards are universally recognized as the highest level of quality attainable by a testing laboratory.
Mark was suddenly terminated by the Biology Department when his discovery of soft tissues in a Triceratops horn was published in Acta Histochemica.
The university claimed his appointment at had been temporary and claimed a lack of funding for the position.
This was news to him, and contradicted prior statements and documents from the university. Mark Armitage has a MS degree in biology and has been a microscope scientist microscopist for 30 years. He was the president of the Southern California Society for Microscopy for several years. He has some 30 publications to his credit. Mark's micrographs have appeared on the covers of eleven scientific journals, and he has many technical publications on microscopic phenomena in such journals as American Laboratory, Southern California Academy of Sciences Bulletin, Parasitology Research, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy Today and Acta Histochemica, among others.
According to papers filed with the Superior Court of Los Angeles County, when Mark Armitage interviewed for an opening at CSUN for a "regular" "part-time" microscopist in he told the panel that he had published materials supportive of creationism.
William Krohmer, Manager of Technical Services and Safety, who would be Armitage's direct supervisor, was on the panel. The panel hired Armitage despite his creationist writings because of his exceptional qualifications. The position was Electron Microscopy Technician in the Department of Biology, working two ten-hour days per week. He was "permanent part-time" and was allowed to enroll in the full benefits package of the university.
He ran the Microscopy Imaging Facility with its three electron microscopes, personally training students and faculty on their proper use. He was often praised for his work and accomplishments. The Biology Department bought a new confocal microscope that used high-powered lasers for imaging and was computer-driven. Armitage supervised the installation of the new microscope. He was assigned to be the only instructor on it, with responsibility for control and supervision of the instrument.
In Februaryhe was asked to teach a full graduate course in Biological Imaging for the Biology Department. In MarchDr. Oppenheimer sent an email to staff saying that the two days per week that Armitage was working needed to be expanded in order to facilitate the growing demands of the microscopy lab. In JuneDr. Ernest Kwok was made chairman of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab, and became Armitage's new supervisor. In the summer ofArmitage responded to an invitation to participate in a search for dinosaur fossils in Glendive, Montana in the famous Hell Creek formation.
He found the brow-horn of a triceratops; it was not petrified. Studying the horn at the CSUN lab, he discovered soft tissue in the supposedly million-year-old or more fossil. While teaching students how to use microscopes in the lab that he directed at CSUN, Armitage engaged them in brief socratic dialogue about the possible age of the horn.
Kwok's students was stunned by the discovery and implications of soft tissue in the triceratops horn, and told Dr. On June 12,Dr. Kwok stormed into Armitage's lab and shouted, "We are not going to tolerate your religion in this department! Armitage reported this to the Biology Department chair, Dr.
They both played down the event and told Armitage to forget it. Praise for Armitage's work continued from distinguished members of the Biology Department. In Novembera photo of the soft tissue in the triceratops horn was published on the cover of American Laboratory magazine.
The former chair of the Biology Department, Dr. Oppenheimer, wrote a ringing endorsement of Armitage in a letter of recommendation. On February 12,the journal Acta Histochemica published a paper by Armitage describing the discovery of soft tissue in the triceratops horn. Acta Histochemica is a peer-reviewed journal of structural biochemistry of cells and tissue that welcomes advanced microscopical imaging; it has been publishing since On the day the paper was published, Dr.
Kwok called a secret meeting of the committee overseeing the microscopy lab. Armitage had served on the committee for three years, but he was not invited.
The committee decided to terminate Armitage. On February 19,William Krohmer told Armitage that there was a "witch hunt" being mounted against him, and advised him to resign.
When he refused to resign, Krohmer told him he would be terminated. Armitage was fired on February 27, He was told that his job had only been a "temporary appointment". There is a sidenote to this story.
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Hugh Miller, head of the Paleochronology group, obtained a bone sample from the triceratops horn Mark Armitage discovered. As you can see, the bone was dated by them to 33, years before present. The data for their four dinosaurs is below.
More soft tissue A remarkable find was published in the journal Nature in April The "bone bed is characterized by the presence of completely disarticulated skeletal elements at various stages of embryonic development". This made it possible to detect the preservation of organic residues, probably direct products of the decay of complex proteins, within both the fast-growing embryonic bone tissue and the margins of the vascular spaces. Our results clearly indicate the presence of both apatite and amide peaks within woven embryonic bone tissue, which should not be susceptible to microbial contamination or other post-mortem artefacts.
Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains. Commentary Radiocarbon RC or Carbon C dating of linen, cotton, bones, fossils, wood, sea shells, seeds, coal, diamond anything with carbon is one of the most common and well understood of the various scientific dating methods.
Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon that is formed naturally in the atmosphere. All plants and animals have a regular intake of carbon while they are alive. When an animal or plant dies, it no longer takes in carbon of any form. C has a half-life of years. The maximum theoretical detection limit is aboutyears, but radiocarbon dating is only reliable up to 55, years with the best equipment. Older dates are considered to be tentative. If, as generally believed, dinosaurs have been extinct for 65 million years, there should not be one atom of Carbon left in their bones.
The accuracy of carbon dates depends on whether the ratio of Carbon to Carbon was the same in the past as it is today. There are two types of C dating technologies. The original one, counting Beta decay particles, is a multistep process and requires sample sizes of several grams.
Beta counting is prone to possible errors in each of the many phases. AMS uses a much smaller sample size, and actually counts the Carbon atoms as they are separated from the sample. The equipment accelerates streams of charged atomic particles to high velocities in order to sort and analyze them. Carbon dating of bone is one of the most difficult tasks in carbon dating, and requires the most care of any carbonaceous material. This is mainly due to the nature of bone, which is a very porous material.
Certain parts of bone look like a sponge under the microscope. Many dinosaur bones are hard as rock because the original material has been replaced with a silicon material such as quartz. Koch] at m depth F. It's important to note that the authors concluded: According to the authors K. Agenbroad, "The warm spring waters that infiltrated the sinkhole leached out the collagen in the bones.
One case in point came from the study of tektites in Victoria, Australia [Lake Torrens and Lake Eyre regions] called australites. Younger ages for fission tracks were ascribed to partial annealing of fission tracks by reheating on the earth's surface. One of their team members, E. Gill, had RC dated charcoal and calcareous nodules as they were found with "australites.
Three dacite components from the final lava flow of A. Poag 23 and G. RC dating of core drilling specimens from the more famous Chicxalub crater in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico should also be RC dated since the explosion of the volcano or asteroid that produced that crater is thought to have caused the supposed demise of the dinosaurs 65 millions years ago. Furthermore, fossil materials other than dinosaur bones and amber that should be free of C but contain significant amounts include anthracite coal, fossil natural gas, fossil wood and marble resulting from the metamorphism of limestone.
Some examples from many references include: P McNichol et al. Beukins et al ;26 fossil CO2, 0. Aerts -Bijma et al. C dates for carbon-containing material from the Chesapeake Bay or Chicxalub core samples would be useful for comparison. Controversial radiometric dates have been recorded for material from Hawaiian volcanic eruptions in and the Hawaiian magma there gave dates of 1.
Six fragments from a single diamond exhibited essentially identical C values — Most of the strata are the brownish-grey sediments of the Hell Creek formation thought to date back 65 million years when the Rocky Mountains were rising in the West and there was much volcanic activity.
At that time, much of the region was part of river-plains similar to the present southeastern United States with sub-tropical climate and vegetation of the Cretaceous period or the Age of Reptiles.
Rivers draining the Western Mountains deposited layer upon layer of sediments which over alleged millions of years compacted to form the sandstones, mudstones, clays, and shales that form the Montana Badlands landscape according to the Makoshika State Park web site. The Triceratops and Hadrosaur femurs were found in popcorn clay. The term, popcorn clay is non-technical. It looks like popcorn.
It usually refers to any clay that swells and shrinks. The color varies from grey to grey-green to green to tan; it is found in distinct thick strata. It contains much volcanic material such as bentonite, or clays such as montmorillonite or vermiculite. It is very slippery in wet, and crunchy in dry condition, according to paleontologist Otis Kline. Regarding elevation, the GPS unit showed m. The highest nearby point is approximately m southwest of the find and is m above sea level.
The location of this RC dated Triceratops singular femur bone is just over 2. No other bones were found with the femur. The elevation appears to be the same as the Triceratops being excavated on Kline's "Lone Ridge" for the past three summers where no femur bones were discovered.
Photos a-d in Fig. Photos were unavailable for the Hadrosaur femur excavation.
Photos 1 of actual excavation are shown in Fig. In light of the discovery of soft tissue in a T-Rex from the Montana Hell Creek Formation and RC dates for other fossils in the geological record it was decided to examine the bone interior of this femur, as Libby's team did with Smilodon and Schweitzer et al. Support System for Excavation Fig. The Triceratops femur was resting on a layer of popcorn clay in an apparent, almost aseptic sand and fine clay matrix.
Carbon 14 Dating of Fossils
It can also be seen from Fig. Because of its proximity to the surface, the paleontologists had to contend with some roots of living plant material before reaching the bone. Perhaps the most informative documentation of Figs. Photos 3a-3c are of Triceratops femur bone during and after sawing; photo 3d is a portion of Glendive MT Dinosaur and Fossil Museum field research station; photomacrograph 3e is of material from bone interior containing bone collagen.
Identification of the femur was made by comparing with photos and descriptions from a standard paleontology text-book and comparison with a young adult femur, cm long. Montana Badlands Inspection of the femur cross section in Fig. Samples from different interior locations were easily removed by hand with a with a stainless steel scoop-type instrument as shown in Fig.
Hedges for ensuring RC dates are valid in situations demanding a careful investigation or try to pinpoint an absolute RC date. In the case of the conventional method, Hedges wrote: First, different chemical fractions can often be extracted from the same sample, and enough to permit repeat dates to be made if the first measurement is suspect in any way. Both these approaches are invaluable in increasing confidence in the reliability of a date.
We washed the collagen obtained in distilled water until no Calcium was detectable.
Carbon 14 Dating of Fossils | TASC
We then treated the collagen with 0. Finally, we separated the humic acid residue from the gelatin solution by centrifugation, and the solution was evaporated. Benzene was synthesized from the dried gelatin by burning in a "bomb" or by dry pyrolysis, using the standard methods The RC ages listed in Table 1 are accompanied by corrected percent of modern carbon and other pertinent RC factors for most of the RC dates.
The conventional and the AMS testing methods were applied to different samples from both dinosaur femur bones as noted in Table1. The modified Longin method was used for extraction and purification of collagen for Sample Tri.
The percent of collagen was 0. Again the modified Longin method was used for extracting 0. This was the very first sample from either bone that was dated so it was apparent that more experimental testing would be required.