3 1 review reinforcement answer key pdf name date class 3ã¢â‚¬â€•3 review and online ebook library. get 10 1 review and reinforcement chemical. progresses rapidly, and many statements become out-of-date quickly. and understands such basic terms as classical conditioning, reinforcement, I also assume familiarity with a high school chemistry course. clicks one of the an- swers, the electronic text reports whether the answer Editorial review has deemed. Select the best answer for each of the following questions. against the Answer Key at the end of the book. 1. Which saying best reflects learning? a. blinking; spontaneous recovery in the absence of any reinforcement for doing so. According to _, Kim would be more likely to date Brad in the future. a. the law of effect b.
This is called "equivalence classification". This ability to recognize equivalence may be a precursor to language. Sea lions have also been proven to be able to understand simple syntax and commands when taught an artificial sign language similar to the one used with primates.
However, the sea lions rarely used the signs semantically or logically. Sea lions use their bodies in various postural positions to display communication.Should you keep dating him? (NO SPARK & NO CHEMISTRY)
There has yet to be an experiment which proves for certain that sea lions use echolocation as a means of communication. Several investigators have pointed out that some marine mammals appear to have an extraordinary capacity to alter both the contextual and structural features of their vocalizations as a result of experience.
Janik and Slater have stated that learning can modify the emission of vocalizations in one of two ways: However similar observations have not been reported since. Still shows under the right circumstances pinnipeds may use auditory experience, in addition to environmental consequences such as food reinforcement and social feedback to modify their vocal emissions.
In a study, Robert Gisiner and Ronald J. Schusterman conducted experiments in which they attempted to teach Rocky, a female California sea lion, syntax. It was found that Rocky was able to determine relations between signs and words, and form a basic form of syntax. This provides a strong backing to the theory that equivalence relations can form without language.
The distinctive sound of sea lions is produced both above and below water. To mark territory, sea lions "bark", with non-alpha males making more noise than alphas. Although females also bark, they do so less frequently and most often in connection with birthing pups or caring for their young. Females produce a highly directional bawling vocalization, the pup attraction call, which helps mother and pup locate one another.
As noted in Animal Behavior, their amphibious lifestyle has made them need acoustic communication for social organization while on land. Squid are capable of rapid changes in skin color and pattern through nervous control of chromatophores. Caribbean reef squid can send one message via color patterns to a squid on their right, while they send another message to a squid on their left.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message It is worth distinguishing "animal language" from "animal communication", although there is some comparative interchange in certain cases e. Through this formulation Hockett made one of the earliest attempts to break down features of human language for the purpose of applying Darwinian gradualism.
Although an influence on early animal language efforts see belowis today not considered the key architecture at the core of "animal language" research.
Animal language - Wikipedia
Animal Language results are controversial for several reasons. For a related controversy, see also Clever Hans.
In the s John Lilly was attempting to "break the code": Early chimpanzee work was with chimpanzee infants raised as if they were human; a test of the nature vs. This combination is thought to make it very difficult for the chimpanzees to reproduce the vocal intonations required for human language. Researchers eventually moved towards a gestural sign language modality, as well as "keyboard" devices laden with buttons adorned with symbols known as "lexigrams" that the animals could press to produce artificial language.
Other chimpanzees learned by observing human subjects performing the task. Terrace's criticism using his own research with the chimpanzee Nim Chimpsky   was scathing and basically spelled the end of animal language research in that era, most of which emphasized the production of language by animals. In short, he accused researchers of over-interpreting their results, especially as it is rarely parsimonious to ascribe true intentional "language production" when other simpler explanations for the behaviors gestural hand signs could be put forth.
Also, his animals failed to show generalization of the concept of reference between the modalities of comprehension and production; this generalization is one of many fundamental ones that are trivial for human language use. The simpler explanation according to Terrace was that the animals had learned a sophisticated series of context-based behavioral strategies to obtain either primary food or social reinforcementbehaviors that could be over-interpreted as language use.
As previously mentioned, the reward pathway is an integral part in the induction of curiosity. The release of dopamine in investigating response to novel or exciting stimuli. The fast dopamine release observed during childhood and adolescence is important in development, as curiosity and exploratory behavior are the largest facilitators of learning during early years.
In addition, the sensation pleasure of "liking" can occur when opioids are released by nucleus accumbens. This helps someone evaluate the unfamiliar situation or environment and attach value to the novel object. These processes of both wanting and liking play a role in activating the reward system of the brain, and perhaps in the stimulation of curious or information-seeking tendencies as well. The caudate nucleus is another component of the reward pathway.
Research has suggested the role of the caudate nucleus anticipates the possibility of and is in anticipation of reward of exploratory behavior and gathered information, thus contributing to factors of curiosity. However, cortisol may also be associated with curious or exploratory behavior.
Findings in recent studies suggesting the role of cortisol with curiosity support the idea of optimal arousal theory.
It is suggested the release of a small amount cortisol causing stress encourages curious behavior, while too much stress can initiate a "back away" response.
Curiosity - Wikipedia
As there are limited cognitive and sensory resources to understand and evaluate various stimuli, attention allows the brain to better focus on what it perceives to be the most important or relevant of these stimuli.
Individuals tend to focus their energies on stimuli that are particularly stimulating or engaging. Indicating that the more attention a stimulus garners, the more frequent one's energy and focus will be directed towards that stimulus. This idea suggests an individual will focus their attention on new or unfamiliar stimuli in an effort to better understand or make sense of the unknown over the more familiar or repetitive stimuli.
Creating the idea that curiosity demands attention. It would seem natural that the striatum plays a role in attention and reward anticipation, both of which are important in the provocation of curiosity. There has been a correlation found between the amount of grey matter in the precuneus and levels of curious and exploratory behaviors; suggesting that the precuneus density has an influence on levels of curiosity. If curiosity is the desire to seek out and understand unfamiliar or novel stimuli, one's memory is important in determining if the stimuli is indeed unfamiliar.
Memory is the process by which the brain can store and access information. In order to determine if the stimulus is novel, an individual must remember if the stimulus has been encountered before. Thus, memory plays an integral role in dictating the level of novelty or unfamiliarity, and the level of need for curiosity.
It can also be suggested that curiosity can affect memory. As previously mentioned, stimuli that are novel tend to capture more of our attention.
Additionally, novel stimuli usually have a reward value associated with them, the anticipated reward of what learning that new information may bring. With stronger associations and more attention devoted to a stimulus, it is probable that the memory formed from that stimulus will be longer lasting and easier to recall, both of which facilitate better learning. Hippocampus and the parahippocampal gyrus[ edit ] The hippocampus is important in memory formation and recall and therefore instrumental in determining the novelty of various stimuli.
This finding suggests that the PHG may be involved in the amplification of curiosity more so than the primary induction of curiosity. It is suggested the amygdala is important in processing emotional reactions towards novel or unexpected stimuli and the induction of exploratory behavior.
This implies a potential connection between curiosity levels and the amygdala. However, more research is needed on direct correlation. He argued that babies and children are constantly trying to make sense of their reality and that it contributed to their intellectual development.
According to Piaget, children develop hypotheses, conduct experiments and then reassess their hypotheses depending on what they observe. Piaget was the first to closely document children's actions and interpret them as consistent, calculated effort to test and learn about their environment.
Most research on curiosity has been focused on adults and which typically used self-report measures are inappropriate and inapplicable for studying children. Curiosity is mostly thought of as attributable to a mature person and is characterized in young children as a fledgling feature of their outlook on the world.
Several studies look at children's curiosity by simply observing their interaction with novel and familiar toys.
One study found that object curiosity in year-olds was negatively related to psychological maladjusted so children who exhibit more anxiety in classroom settings engaged in less curious behaviour. It has also been suggested that certain aspects of classroom learning is dependent on curiosity which can be affected by students' anxiety. It has been suggested that children are further motivated to learn when dealing with uncertainty. It is argued that their reactions to not having their expectations met would fuel their curiosity more than the introduction of a novel or complex object would.
From the first ball they send flying to the ant they watch carry a crumb, children use science's tools—enthusiasm, hypotheses, tests, conclusions—to uncover the world's mysteries. But somehow students seem to lose what once came naturally. Severe degeneration of areas implicated in curiosity Different neurodegenerative diseases or other psychological disorders can affect various characteristics of curiosity, for instance Alzheimer's disease 's effects on memory or depression on motivation and reward.
Alzheimer's disease AD is a neurodegenerative disease that directly affects the capability and capacity for memory. Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by a lack of interest in one's environment and feelings of sadness or hopelessness.
A lack of curiosity for novel stimuli might also be used as a potential predictor for these and other illnesses. For the magazine, see Morbid Curiosity magazine.
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